behind the name of Anzali:
the era of Pahlavi dynasty, Anzali's name had been altered to "Pahlavi
Port" but after the revolution of 1978 (1357) it took its old name back.
Among the various definitions found for Anzali, the most acceptable definition
is the one defining Anzal as Anchor or Anchorage. Anzal is synonym to Anshan.
The word Anzali itself has been distorted. Anshan means Gate; according to many
written works, Anzali was called The Gate of Europe and Iran.
city population has been equal to 110,643 based on the statistics from 2006.
Anzali has an area of 275 Km2, 4,931 Km2 of which is
dedicated to the city area. As we see, Anzali Port is one of the most crowded
cities of Iran.
and the firsts:
enjoys a 300-year-old customhouse, more than 200 years of port administration
experience and local associations. First municipality in Iran was established
in this city. Department of education was also established before 1892 (1271),
adult education with high school courses before 1897 (1276) that was
administered by municipality. Printing office was established before 1907. The
first hospital was constructed before 1897 and was administered by
municipality. Lion and Sun Organization established in 1925. Anzali was the
first city of Iran that enjoyed electricity before 1900 (1279). Telephone came
to the city before 1898 (1277). The city was also provided with post and
telegraph services before Iran's other cities. Law enforcement department also was
established before 1907 (1286). Railway facility was established around 1870
(1269) in a rural area of Anzali city. Meteorological department was
established before 1901 (1280). Fishery department with 150 years of experience
and the first fridge were established in Anzali and Hassan Kiyadeh. The first
airline was also established in Anzali in a land known as Plane Land. The first
flight in Iran was from Anzali Port to Tehran and then to Isfahan. Cars were
also seen in Anzali for the first time. Anzali's cinema theater was also a pioneer
in movie screening and having cinema hall. The city was also a pioneer in
Port is one of the most beautiful cities of Iran where lagoon, sea, shore and
grass make wonderful scenery. Having lovely and natural attractions, Anzali
Port is host to millions of tourists from all around the world and Iran also.
Due to special climate conditions and having similarities with other beautiful
cities in the world, Anzali has successfully signed various agreements with
France, Italy, Poland and etc regarding town twining. Another unique
characteristic of this port is its potentiality in fields of science, arts and
sports which has played a great role in achieving national and international
glories. High educational rates and frequent communication with domestic and
foreign tourists have caused cultural growth among the citizens.
at the peak:
of Anzali had become familiar with western culture and were in a high level of
thought growth due to their travels to Russia and specially Azerbaijan (former
Russia) and other travelling Iranians or foreigners who used to cross this port
to reach Europe and vice versa. Therefore, they were shoulder to shoulder with
people of Rasht in political movements, especially in constitutional revolution
and forest movement and for a period of 350 years they acted like a guard for
Iran in Bolshevik wars against Caucuses of Iran and in fighting against
occupying foreigners. From the social point of view also they were pioneers in
the establishment of modern schools, municipality, hospital, public interest
institutions and charities such as orphanages compared to other big cities of
Iran. They also were so interested in education and establishment of night
classes that in the early days of constitutional government, daily newspaper issues
were a total number of 525 which compared to Anzali's population was not seen
before in Iran. Nowadays, Anzali's children are occupied with studying in great
scientific and university centers of the world in Europe, America, Canada and
Australia or enjoy high scientific positions. By 1992 (1371) Anzali had had 151 primary and secondary
schools and high schools and one nursing college in which a total number of
36,500 students used to study. In 1986 (1365), Anzali ranked first in Guilan
province by having a population, 77/7% of which was constituted of educated persons.
In 1991 (1370) however, it ranked as the first city after Tehran which had 85%
of its population educated. Since there were many educated persons who used to
go to Tehran from various cities of Iran we probably can say that Anzali was
the first city with educated population at that time.
Occupation in Anzali Port:
citizens were occupied with boating, fishing
and hunting. Lots of people from Khalkhal also used to work in hunting place of
Bareh Kosh. Fishing activity was performed in lagoon and seashore and rivers
using nets. Nowadays, nearly 6000 fishers work in cooperative companies.
Boatmen who used to form a great population were enjoying an orderly
organization. There were more than 500 huge boats in Anzali. According to the
evidence if each boat has had 6 to 12 boatmen then it turns out to be a great
number. These boats were demolished upon the establishment of roads. Kilka
fishing also has been so increased in recent years that every evening a great
number of fishers go to the sea and come back to their jetties with a big bulk
of Kilka fish next day morning. Matting is also one of those occupations which
have a high income. Mat of Ghazian enjoys a special fame among people.
Thousands of mats are annually exported to domestic and foreign cities. These
mats used to be as carpets which we use today. It should be said that mat of
Aabkenar has also been famous among people. Due to the development of modern
carpets, hundreds of women who used to do matting lost their jobs. Despite land
shortage in Anzali that has caused it to be in a lower position in field of
agriculture, various rice, vegetables, watermelon, melon and peanut are
cultivated in Anzali and several villagers are also occupied with sericulture specially
in Aabkenar that has great experiences in the said field.
Attractions in Anzali Port:
lagoon is world's most beautiful and biggest lagoon, shores of which are
beautifully embellished with canebrakes and sea tulips that attract everyone's
eye. The lagoon used to be larger in the past. Boats and the boatmen used to
move in the lagoon and transport goods and passengers from one village to
another via Anzali to Pir Bazaar and vice versa. Rasht and Anzali were
connected to each other through the lagoon. Sometimes lagoon used to become so
stormy that old men recall the waves much huger and horrifying than the waves
of Caspian Sea.
area used to be about 280 Km2 before tide and its depth varied from
1/25 meter to 2/80 meter. Due to the rapid increase in the water level of
Caspian Sea in recent years, a huge area of the shores related to the lagoon
has been immersed making the lagoon larger and deeper. There are many rivers
flowing into the Anzali lagoon and there are also many small and huge islands
existed in the lagoon. Thousands of birds, especially swans, migrate to the
lagoon making it much more beautiful. Various fish species are grown in lagoon
and there are many plants floating on and into the water. Whether it is a
rowboat or a motor boat, it would be an unforgettable treat to sail on the
lagoon. As it is said: "seeing is believing!" fishing with a hook is
also another entertainment that has a relaxing effect due to the concentration
it requires whether you are on a boat or standing near the rivers. Anzali
lagoon attracts tourists from all around the world. It is hoped that in the
near future it would attract more visitors from Iran and even newly independent
neighboring countries located in northern, western and eastern Caspian Sea coasts
which can play a great role in the economic lives of Anzali citizens.
Minaret (Clock Tower):
Anzali's Clock Tower can be
seen from long distances. According to history books and itineraries Khosrokhan-e-Gorji, Guilan's
Ruler, built it in 1815 of brick. The goal of building it was using this tower
as sentinel of the sea and lighthouse so that the sailors could find the coast
through the lights of minaret and steer their boat into the canal. Accordingly
a light was set on the top of it and a guard was appointed to watch the sea.
after restoration of the tower, a clock was mounted on the top of the Minaret.
The municipality had bought that clock from Germany. Unfortunately, after some
years, the clock did not work anymore, until 1990 when the municipality
replaced the old clock with a new digital one.
The Minaret's height is 28
construction of Anzali's surf breakers the canal between Anzali and Ghazian was
like a gulf where commercial ships were docked to load and unload the goods and
to be protected against sea waves and storm. But sea waves still attacked the
canal and damaged the boats and ships there. Hence, a need for building surf
breakers emerged. And so the construction contract was signed in 1895 between
Iran's government and Anzali-Ghazvin Road Constructor Company. The surf
breaker's length was 750 meter and its width was 520 meter. The construction
procedure was finished completely in 1914. To build this a railway was
constructed between Talesh's Poonel Mountain and the western end of Kapoorchal
gulf. Rocks were mined from the mountains and then stonecutting was done, and
then they were transferred to Kapoorchal waterfront. Finally from there, they
were transferred to the surf breakers' construction location on boats. The surf
breakers were constructed under the supervision of two Russian engineers, Aliov
and Planatov. This huge structure has been mounted on wooden beams put on the
The beach of
Anzali is about 20 km and Ghazian's is 15 km; they are of the best swimming
spots. Swimming is beneficial for health and relaxation. Smelling (Iodine)
arose from the sea especially in the evenings is like a drug for those who
suffer from nervous disorders or goiter disease. The beach should be kept clean
so that everyone can use this nature gift.
Two of the
Anzali's beautiful and spectacular structures are Ghazian and Anzali bridges.
In the past, most of the commutes between Anzali and Ghazian were done by boats
until a decision was made to connect Anzali to Ghazian-Rasht road through
building 2 bridges. One of them was a bridge between Ghazian and Mianposhteh
which was about 210 meters long, 10 meters wide, and 6.85 meters high with 5
spans. One of its spans was mobile.
bridge was between Mianposhteh and Anzali which was 127 meters long, 10 meters
wide, and 6.5 meters high with 3 spans. One of its spans was mobile too.
were made of reinforced concrete. The construction procedure was started in
1935 an ended in 1937 and the bridge was opened in 1938. These two bridges were
built by a German company accompanied by some other companies (like a Swedish
one). With construction of these bridges the communication road of Azerbaijan,
Rasht, Ghazvin and Tehran was established. Recently to protect the bridges,
heavy trucks' passing on is prohibited.
is placed between Anzali and Ghazian bridge in Mianposhteh area. Before its
construction, there was a beautiful and majestic palace there called
"khoshtaria" which was burned in 1928 and ruined. The construction of
this palace was started in 1929 and ended in 1935. The building area is 1168
square meters. The walls were made of concrete blocks and have 11 bedrooms, one
drawing room and 4 bathrooms.
Inside the rooms are designed
with plasterwork. A large chandelier hangs in the hall of the palace.
Since 1988, after
overhauling, the navy has converted the palace into a military museum and
variety of cool weapons and firearms are kept there exposed to public. Visit
this military museum is open to the public.
Anzali's Park (Bolvar)
The park is
over 85 years old. First its upper part was built, and since 1928 the other
parts have been gradually added to the park. The area of this park is 35,000
square meters. Due to being in canal coast, three sides of it are overlooking
the river. In the northern part of the park, the two surf breakers are placed
which make a beautiful scene that attract many visitors.
Shanbeh Bazar (Saturday Market)
Saturday vendors from neighboring areas come to Anzali to put their goods on
the riverside street to sell. More than 650 vendors sell everything, even the
rare drugs. The shouts of the sellers who invite you to buy their goods make
very pleasant scenery. Shanbeh Bazar with more than 100 years old is still
thriving and spectacular.
some Castles, military bastions, and a few minarets. Unfortunately among the
whole minarets just one has remained. Now the oldest building in Anzali is
Motamedi Mansion (police building) in upper Bolvar which has the same age as
the Clock Tower (the Minaret). Justice Building is one of the buildings which
were built between 1925 and 1927. Music playing place (which is called
Hafeziyeh) and City Hall that current Helale ahmar Theater is placed in it were
built between 1931 and 1933 too.
some other buildings in anzali with more than 120 to 150 years old.
Hotels of the City:
Road, 5th Kilometer
Gozar Road, Swan Beach
St. across Bozorg Hotel
Anzali Tourism Compllex
Kilometer of Astara Road, After epid Kenar
Kilometer of Astara Road, Next to the International Exhibition
Road, Ziba Kenar
Square, Next ot Quds Park
Kilometer, Anzali-Astara Road